Prokaryote Vs Eukaryote Compare And Contrast Essays

Comparison Of Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells Introduction Eukaryotic cells are very complex; there are many organelles, each serving a distinct function, present in eukaryotic cells. We can divide the eukaryotic group of cells in to two main groups, according to the presence of these membrane bound organelles, and the structural differences amongst the cells and their organelles. The two groups of eukaryotic cells are plant and animal cells.

Nucleus The reason that plant and animal cells are not divided in to two different types of cells, and instead are both grouped in the eukaryotic cell group lies in the definition of eukaryotic cells. The word is derived from the Greek "eu" meaning true, and "karyon" referring to the nucleus. This means the eukaryotic cells have "true" membrane-bound nuclei. Both plant and animal cells have a membrane-bound nucleus; hence, they are grouped as eukaryotic cells. The nucleus plays the same role and has the same structure in both plant and animal cells. You can see that the nucleus is present in both animal and plant cells by examining figure A and figure B.

Although the nucleus itself remains similar among both plant and animal cells, one difference lies in the positioning of the nucleus within the cell. Due to the central vacuole in a plant cell, the nucleus is usually not located in the center of the cell; rather, it is usually crowded nearer the plasma membrane. In most animal cells, however, the nucleus is located in the center of the cell, as this position is ideal in the process of mitosis, and there is no large central vacuole located in animal cells.

The nucleus contains the genes which control the entire cell, and, within the eukaryotic division of cells is uniform among all cells, that is, every eukaryotic cell has a nucleus which functions in the exact manner as other eukaryotic nuclei.

The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell performs three primary functions; these three functions make it possible for the cell to function, and to exist, as the building block of organisms. The Nucleus contains the genetic information of a cell. Encoded in this genetic information, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), are the instructions for all structures and organelles within the cell. This DNA instructs the cell as a whole in order for it to accomplish its primary function in a multicellular animal. The genetic information of a cell, through mitosis, is passed on to its daughter cells; therefore all of the cells in a multicellular animal contain the same DNA. This DNA is organized with proteins in to strands called chromosomes.

The second function of the nucleus within a cell is its control of protein synthesis. The nucleus controls protein synthesis through messenger RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is produced in the nucleus according to the instructions of the DNA...

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Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells both have DNA as their geneticmaterial, are covered by a cell membrane, contain RNA, and are bothmade from the same basic chemical (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleicacid, minerals, fats, and vitamins). They both contain ribosomes.Eukaryotic cells contain large ribosomes and Prokaryotic cells containsmall ribosomes. Both of them also regulate the flow of the nutrientsand wastes that enter and leave them. Some other things they have incommon are they both have similar basic metabolism likephotosynthesis and reproduction. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cellsrequire a supply of energy and are both highly regulated by elaboratesensing systems that make them aware of the reactions within themand the environment around them. They also both contain plasmamembranes. Eukaryotic cells have simple cilia and flagella whileprokaryotic cells have complex.As for the genetic material, prokaryotic cells do not have a truenucleus, are located within the cytoplasm, and are not bound by aspecial membrane. They also consist of a single molecule of DNA.Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, are located within the nucleus,and are bound by a double membrane-bound compartment within thecytoplasm. They also have numerous molecules of DNA combined withprotein, and are organized into chromosomes.Some prokaryotic cells have photosynthetic membranes arisingfrom the plasma membrane. Instead of having chromosomal DNA,prokaryotic cells genetic information is in a circular loop called aplasmid. They also have cell walls made up of peptidoglycan. Thesecells are represented by the domains Bacteria and Archaea.Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, andsometimes contain a capsule. Prokaryotic cells contain three majortypes of shapes, such as, rod shaped, spherical, and spiral. Theorganisms within the prokaryotic cells are bacteria and cyanobacteria(also known as blue algae). Bacterial cells are about one to two um indiameter and ten um long. Unlike the eukaryotic cells, prokaryoticcells do not go through elaborate replication processes, bacterial cellsdivide by binary fission.Eukaryotic cells have a cytomembrane system of connectedmembrane structures and membrane bounded compartmentsspecialized to perform specific functions. They also contain theendomembrane system, which carries out a variety of tasks in the cell.Some of the tasks include synthesis of proteins and their transport intomembranes and organelles or out of the cell, metabolism andmovement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons. This system includesthe nuclear envelope, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus,lysosomes, various kinds of vacuoles, and the plasma membrane. They also contain peroxisomes and chromosomes. These cells arerepresented by the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.Eukaryotic cells are about ten times the size of prokaryotic cells.

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