Reference citations in text: APA Style's system for citing sources typically includes the author’s last name and date of publication, in parentheses, within the text of the paper. Parenthetical in-text citations replace the traditional footnotes or endnotes.
Reference List: The reference list at the end of the paper documents literature cited in the paper by providing the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. Note that a reference list differs from a bibliography in that it includes only those works actually cited within the paper. For additional details, including acceptable abbreviations, version to cite, and order of references, refer to sections 6.22 to 6.25 of the APA Publication Manual (6th ed., pp. 180-183).
Agreement of text and Reference list: APA Style requires all sources cited in the text to be documented in the reference list, with the exception of personal communications such as unpublished letters, memoranda and informal electronic communications (APA 6.20); and, ancient classical works and religious texts numbered systematically across all editions (APA 6.18).
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Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:
- Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
- Use italics and "sentence-style" capitalization for dissertation / thesis titles.
- Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title.
- If the paper was retrieved through a library database, give the accession or order number at the end of the reference. This can be located within the first pages of the thesis text.
Rashed, D.H. (2008). A case study of international ESL learners’ perceptions of technology use in English language learning (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1456443)
Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
Rashed (2008) examines ESL students’ perceptions of technology use in the classroom.